Ground Fault Detection - AC

Ground Fault / Earth Fault for AC and DC Systems.

In an electric power system, a fault or fault current is any abnormal electric current. For example, a short circuit is a fault in which current bypasses the normal load. An open-circuit fault occurs if a circuit is interrupted by some failure. In three-phase systems, a fault may involve one or more phases and ground, or may occur only between phases. In a “ground fault” or “earth fault”, current flows into the earth. The prospective short circuit current of a predictable fault can be calculated for most situations. In power systems, protective devices can detect fault conditions and operate circuit breakers and other devices to limit the loss of service due to a failure.

In a polyphase system, a fault may affect all phases equally which is a “symmetrical fault”. If only some phases are affected, the resulting “asymmetrical fault” becomes more complicated to analyse. The analysis of these types of faults is often simplified by using methods such as symmetrical components.

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